## Goals of this Tutorial

• Demonstrate how to use a PolyUMod material model with the Radioss explicit FE solver.
• Information about how to select and calibrate a PolyUMod material model is presented in our “MCalibration for Altair” tutorial.
• These documents are available on our from the following link: https://PolymerFEM.com/Altair

## PolyUMod Library

• The PolyUMod® library is a library of advanced (and accurate) user-material models for finite element modeling of polymers, biomaterials, and other non-linear materials.
• PolymerFEM library contains general purpose material models for virtually all polymers, including thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers, foams, filled plastics, and biomaterials.
• With the PolyUMod library engineers can perform very accurate Radioss FE simulations without becoming an expert in material model software development. All of the difficult development work has already been done!

## What is a Material Model?

• Any product (such as a tire) will deform when exposed to a load. The amount of deformation depends on the stiffness of the material.
• A material model is an equation that relates the applied force (or stress) with the resulting deformation (or strain).
• Radioss contains many material models, such linear elastic, elastic-plastic, etc.
• The PolyUMod library contains additional material models for materials that exhibit non-linear time- or strain-dependence (like most polymers). ## What are Material Parameters?

• A material model specifies the equation that convert between stress and strain for a material. A material model example is Linear Elastic.
• The material parameters are the numbers that specify the properties of a specific material.
• Example: At small deformations, both steel and rubber can be approximately linear in their stress-strain response. That is, both can be represented using a Linear Elastic material model, but they have very different material parameters (such as stiffness). ## Key PolyUMod Material Models

The PolyUMod library of material models contains more than 20 advanced material models.
The following 3 material models are particularly useful for Radioss users:

The Bergstrom-Boyce model is an excellent model for predicting the non-linear viscoelastic response of rubbers. Radioss already supports this model for brick elements. The PolyUMod library supports both brick elements and shell elements.

The Three Network (TN) model was developed for predicting the large-strain, viscoplastic response of thermoplastics (in a glassy state). The TN-model is an excellent generic model for predicting the response of many different classes of both amorphous and semicrystalline thermoplastics.

The Three Network Viscoplastic (TNV) model is a general purpose viscoplastic material model capable of capturing the experimentally observed behaviors of rubbers, thermoplastic elastomers, TPU, foams, and stiff plastics. The model can capture time-dependence, pressure-dependence of plastic flow, pressure-dependent volumetric response, damage accumulation, and triaxiality-dependent failure.

## Brick Elements ( Example Test Problem )

### Exemplar Problem

• A short cylinder of a thermoplastic material is held at the bottom on sheared sideways at the top.
• The goal of the analysis is to determine the stress in the cylinder as the part if being deformed.
• The files used for this example are located here:
C:\Program Files\PolymerFEM\PolyUMod_Altair\
_PolyUMod_TN_3D Use the MCalibration software to calibrate the Three Network (TN) model to experimental data for the plastic material.

The MCalibration software is discussed in more detailed in a separate tutorial. From within MCalibration, export the calibrated material model parameters to a Radioss txt-file. This is the contents of the exported material model.

The material model is a type “/MAT/USER01”.

The first 16 parameters are “control parameters” that specify certain behaviors of the material model.

The remaining parameters are the material parameters. The control parameters are discussed in detail in the PolyUMod User’s Manual (“C:\Program Files\PolymerFEM\PolyUMod_Altair\Documentation\PolyUMod_Manual.pdf”)

The following are the key control parameters that are used by Radioss:

• ORIENT: Should be set to 0, 1, or 2 depending on the Isolid value defined by /PROP/SOLID.
• NPROP: Total number of control and material parameters.
• NHIST: Number of state variables that is used by the material model.
• GMU: Effective shear modulus. Is used to calculate the wave speed in the material.
• GKAPPA: Effective bulk modulus. Is used to calculate the wave speed in the material.

The ORIENT parameter controls how PolyUMod interprets the deformation gradient F that it receives from Radioss. If ORIENT=0, then PolyUMod assumes that F is in a global coordinate system. If ORIENT=1, then it uses the rotated RT F R. If ORIENT=2, then it uses the rotated R F RT.

The ORIENT parameter should be set to 0 if Isolid is 17. This is our recommended element type.

The ORIENT parameter should be set to 1 if Isolid is a co-rotational, except that ORIENT should be set to 2 if Isolid=18. After the material model has been created, the Radioss FE model can be created as usual.

Then insert the material model code into the rad-file.

Before running Radioss you need to copy the PolyUMod library to the same directory as the rad-files. After the FE simulation has finished you can analyze the results as usual.

Here is a HyperView screenshot of the cylinder deformation example. ## Shell Elements ( Example Test Problem )

### Exemplar Problem

• A dogbone-shaped test specimen (from shell elements) is pulled in tension.
• The goal of the analysis is to determine the stress in the test specimen as the part if being deformed.
• The files used for this example are located here: Use the MCalibration software to calibrate the Bergstrom-Boyce (BB) model to experimental data for the plastic material.

The MCalibration software is discussed in more detailed in a separate tutorial. From within MCalibration, export the calibrated material model parameters to a Radioss txt-file. This is the contents of the exported material model.

The material model is a type “/MAT/USER01”.

The first 16 parameters are “control parameters” that specify certain behaviors of the material model.

The remaining parameters are the material parameters. The control parameters are discussed in detail in the PolyUMod User’s Manual

(“C:\Program Files\PolymerFEM\PolyUMod_Altair\Documentation\PolyUMod_Manual.pdf”)

The following are the key control parameters that are used by Radioss:

• ORIENT: Should be set to 1 for shell elements.
• NPROP: Total number of control and material parameters.
• NHIST: Number of state variables that is used by the material model.
• GMU: Effective shear modulus. Is used to calculate the wave speed in the material.
• GKAPPA: Effective bulk modulus. Is used to calculate the wave speed in the material.

The ORIENT parameter controls how PolyUMod interprets the deformation gradient F that it receives from Radioss. If ORIENT=0, then PolyUMod assumes that F is in a global coordinate system. If ORIENT=1, then it uses the rotated RT F R. If ORIENT=2, then it uses the rotated R F RT.

The ORIENT parameter should be set to 1 for shell elements.

After the material model has been created, the Radioss FE model can be created as usual.

Then insert the material model code into the rad-file.

Before running Radioss you need to copy the PolyUMod library to the same directory as the rad-files. After the FE simulation has finished you can analyze the results as usual.

Here is a HyperView screenshot of the FE results. ## Conclusions

The PolyUMod library contains many advanced material models that can be used in Radioss to accurately predict the response of polymers such as rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets, and biomaterials.

Running a Radioss FE simulation with the PolyUMod library requires the following 3 simple steps:

• Calibrate a suitable material model using MCalibration.
• Export the material model into a Radioss file format.
• Import the material model into the Radioss input file and run the simulation.